Displaced workers suffer persistent earnings losses. This stark finding has been established by following workers in administrative data after mass layoffs under the presumption that these are involuntary job losses owing to economic distress. Using linked survey and administrative data, this paper examines this presumption by matching worker-supplied reasons for separations with what is happening at the firm. The paper documents substantially different earnings dynamics in mass layoffs depending on the reason the worker gives for the separation. Using a new methodology for accounting for the increase in the probability of separation among all types of survey response during in a mass layoff, the paper finds earnings loss estimates that are surprisingly close to those using only administrative data. Finally, the survey-administrative link allows the decomposition of earnings losses due to subsequent nonemployment into non-participation and unemployment. Including the zero earnings of those identified as being unemployed substantially increases the estimate of earnings losses.